Advances in Research on SARS-CoV-2

  1. Corman, V. M.; et al. Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Eurosurveillance, 2020, 25(3).

    This article proposes a validated 2019-nCoV diagnostic workflow that can reliably detect 2019-nCoV and discriminates 2019-nCoV from SARS-CoV.

  2. Huang, C.; et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 2020.

    This literature reports the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as treatment and clinical outcomes of patients with 2019-nCoV.

  3. Riou, J.; Althaus, C. L. Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019-nCoV. bioRxiv, 2020.

    This report performed stochastic simulations of early outbreak trajectories that are consistent with the epidemiological findings to date and found that the basic reproduction number R0 is about 2.2, which indicates the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission.

  4. Letko, M. C.; Munster, V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV. bioRxiv. 2020.

    The authors developed a method to quickly screen lineage types B beta coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and the recent 2019-nCoV for receptor usage and their ability to infect cell types in different species and confirm that human ACE2 is the receptor for the recently emerging 2019-nCoV.

  5. Zhang, H.; et al. The digestive system is a potential route of 2019-nCov infection: a bioinformatics analysis based on single-cell transcriptomes. bioRxiv. 2020.

    The data in this article indicates that ACE2 is highly expressed not only in lung AT2 cells, upper esophagus and stratified epithelial cells, but also in absorptive intestinal epithelial cells in the ileum and colon. These results suggest along with respiratory systems, the digestive system is a potential route for 2019-nCov infection.

  6. Wang, M.; et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research, 2020: 1-3.

    This article found that remdesivir and chloroquine are very effective in controlling 2019-nCoV infection in vitro.

  7. Chu, D. K. W.; et al. Molecular diagnosis of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing an outbreak of pneumonia. Clinical Chemistry, 2020.

    The authors developed two 1-step quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis methods to detect two different regions of the viral genome (ORF1b and N) and demonstrated that the established assays can quickly detect 2019n-CoV in human samples, thus allowing early identification of patients.

  8. Liu, X.; Wang, X. J. Potential inhibitors for 2019-nCoV coronavirus M protease from clinically approved medicines. bioRxiv, 2020.

    To identify the 2019-nCoV drug candidate, a computational method is used here to screen 2019-nCoV M protease commercial inhibitor drugs, and up to 10 commercial medicines were identified, which may have higher mutation tolerance than lopinavir/ritonavir and may also function as inhibitors for other coronaviruses.

  9. Zhao, Y.; et al. Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCov. BioRxiv, 2020.

    Based on the public database and the latest single-cell RNA-Seq technique, the author analyzed the ACE2 RNA expression profile in the normal human lungs. The result showed that the ACE2 receptor expression is concentrated in a small number of type II alveolar cell (AT2) populations and found that this population of ACE2-expressing AT2 also highly expressed many other genes that positively regulating viral reproduction and transmission.

  10. Hoffmann, M.; et al. The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells. bioRxiv, 2020.

    The author demonstrates that 2019-nCoV-S uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 for entry and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for 2019-nCoV-S priming. The results reveal important commonalities between 2019-nCoV and SARS-coronavirus infection, which may translate into similar transmissibility and disease pathogenesis.

  11. Paraskevis, D.; et al. Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2020: 104212.

    This study proves that the new coronavirus (2019-nCov) is not mosaic and consists of almost half of the genomes of different lineages within the beta coronavirus.

  12. Ceraolo, C.; Giorgi, F. M. Phylogenomic analysis of the 2019-nCoV coronavirus. bioRxiv. 2020.

    This study identified specific BCoV genomes that appear to be closest to 2019-nCoV with a protein sequence identity of 91.1%, providing further evidence for a zoonotic origin of 2019-nCoV.

  13. Yang, F.; et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation guidelines in the principle of 4S for patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi= Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi= Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. 2020, 43: E004.

    The article provides the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) methods in the principle of 4S (simple, safe, satisfy, save) for patients with pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV, shows how to establish a ventilative and convectional PR environment to prevent virus transmission through droplets and how to guide the patients to carry out PR.

  14. Chen, H.; Du, Q. Potential Natural Compounds for Preventing 2019-nCoV Infection. 2020.

    In this study, the authors first reported that baicalin, Scutellarin, Hesperetin, Nicotianamine, glycyrrhizin have the potential to bind to ACE2 and block the entry of 2019-nCov. Further research is needed to validate our results and test the compounds against the 2019n-Cov effect.

  15. Zhou, T.; et al. Preliminary prediction of the basic reproduction number of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. arXiv preprint arXiv:2001.10530. 2020.

    The report estimated the basic breeding numbers of 2019-nCoV and found that the early transmission capacity of 2019-nCoV is close to or slightly higher than SARS. This is a controllable disease with medium to high transmission capacity, and timely and effective control measures are needed to suppress further transmission.

  16. Shen, M.; et al. Modelling the epidemic trend of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China. bioRxiv, 2020.

    This study conducted a timely assessment of the initial stage of the 2019-nCov epidemic in China, where the spread of 2019-nCov is comparable to SARS and MERS, but the case fatality rate is lower.

  17. Cao, Z.; et al. Estimating the effective reproduction number of the 2019-nCoV in China. medRxiv, 2020.

    This article estimated the effective reproduction number for 2019-nCoV based on the daily reported cases from China CDC. The results indicate that 2019-nCoV has a higher effective reproduction number than SARS with a comparable fatality rate.

  18. Liang, Y.; et al. A Simple Prediction Model for the Development Trend of 2019-nCov Epidemics Based on Medical Observations. arXiv preprint arXiv:2002.00426. 2020.

    In order to predict the development trend of 2019-nCov, the researchers established a prediction model to predict the number of diagnosed cases in China except for Hubei Province and found that the changes in medical observation case number may help to judge the trend of the epidemic situation in advance.

  19. Ramaiah, A.; Arumugaswami, V. Insights into cross-species evolution of novel human coronavirus 2019-nCoV and defining immune determinants for vaccine development. bioRxiv. 2020.

    This study reported a detailed analysis of 2019-nCoV genome evolution and potential candidate peptides for vaccine development, and identified eight high binding affinity (HBA) CD4 T-cell epitopes in the S, E, M and N proteins, which can be commonly recognized by HLA-DR alleles of Asia and Asia-Pacific Region population.

  20. Ji, W.; et al. Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross-species transmission from snake to human. Journal of medical virology. 2020.

    To determine the possible virus reservoir, the authors performed comprehensive sequence analysis and comparison in conjunction with relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) bias among different animal species based on existing sequences of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV. The result showed that snake is the most probable wildlife animal reservoir for the 2019-nCoV based on its RSCU bias resembling snake compared to other animals.

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