Antigen detection or antibody detection assays are commonly used serological diagnostic tools for viral infection. Creative Biolabs offers antibody development, antigen production, immunoassay development, and kit manufacturing services to improve the diagnostic level of SARS-CoV-2 infections.
Human coronaviruses, including hCoV-229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1, cause mild respiratory diseases. However, fatal coronavirus infections have emerged, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the SARS-CoV-2. The full-genome sequence analysis of SARS-CoV-2 revealed that it belongs to betacoronavirus. This novel coronavirus caused clusters of fatal pneumonia with clinical presentation greatly resembling SARS-CoV. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 might develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, have a high likelihood of admission to intensive care, and might die. At present, there are no vaccines or antivirals available for the treatment or prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infections. In the absence of virus-specific control measures, the key to controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is rapid detection and isolation of suspect cases.
The first step for the identification of a virus diagnosis in the laboratory is virus isolation and culture. Specimens, such as swabs, nasal swabs, sputum or lung tissue, blood and feces, should be retained for testing. A number of immunological methods, such as immunofluorescence assay, protein microarray, direct fluorescent antibody assay, mAb-based rapid NP (nucleocapsid protein) detection, semiconductor quantum dots, and microneutralization tests, can be used to rapidly detect viral infections. Serological testing based on the recognition between antibodies and antigens can also be performed to identify CoVs. In addition, viral nucleic acids can also be used for early diagnosis, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, reverse transcription of the chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), etc.
Based on the specific recognition between the antibody and the antigen, serological assays specific for the SARS-CoV-2 will allow the detection and/or quantification of this new coronavirus in clinical blood samples, thereby contributing to disease diagnosis. But first of all, antibodies and antigens that specifically target the virus should be produced. Creative Biolabs has accumulated years of experience in this field and now offers services including antigen production, antibody development, design and development of immunoassays based on multiple technology platforms, such as turbidimetric assays, chemiluminescent assays, ELISA, and rapid tests.
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