SARS-CoV-2 DNA Vaccine

The most effective way to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic is still vaccines. In order to develop potent vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, researchers have competed on the track to develop various types of vaccines. As a new type of vaccine, DNA vaccine has some unique advantages. Creative Biolabs' advanced DNA vaccine platform can provide a full range of technical support for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

Background

Compared with traditional protein/peptide vaccines that induce antigen-specific immune responses, DNA vaccines are more stable, more economical, easier to produce, and safer. DNA vaccines are being studied for a variety of applications, including the treatment of cancer, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. In the United States, there are currently more than 500 clinical trials focusing on DNA vaccination, especially for viral infections and cancers. However, bacterial infections and autoimmune diseases are not a hot topic. The large number of DNA vaccines tested in clinical trials underscore their important role in the future of medicine.

Advantages of DNA Vaccines

SARS-CoV-2 DNA Vaccine

The classic methods of vaccine release are intramuscular injection, intradermal injection, and subcutaneous injection, which first act on the main muscle cells and keratinocytes, respectively, and act on the antigen-presenting cells (APC) near the injection site. Under the action of a DNA vaccine, the internalized DNA needs to be transcribed in the nucleus and then translated in the cytoplasm. A DNA vaccine needs to encode an antigen and an adjuvant to induce an adaptive immune response. In recent years, DNA vaccine research has been gradually carried out around the world, and the scope and content of its research have been gradually expanded. The advantages of DNA vaccines including:

  • DNA vaccine can effectively avoid immune escape and give full play to its role.
  • DNA vaccine can be prepared into multi-valent nucleic acid vaccines to meet the needs of preventing multiple microbial infections at the same time.
  • DNA vaccines do not present the risk of pathogenicity caused by residual or virulence recovery of traditional vaccines.
  • DNA vaccines can continue to express antigens in target organs, triggering humoral, and cellular immune responses.
  • DNA vaccines can be used flexibly to designate them as marker vaccines, which can be flexibly used in current clinical monitoring.
  • DNA vaccines have good safety and stability and are easy to store.
  • The production cost of DNA vaccine is lower, and it is more convenient to use. It can be vaccinated through different ways.

DNA Vaccine Platform from Creative Biolabs

Although DNA vaccines have very promising advantages and have also demonstrated effective induction of cellular and humoral immune responses in clinical trials, the levels of these responses are often not sufficient to produce significant clinical benefits. In addition, DNA vaccines still face many challenges to become an effective tool. The biggest challenge is the low immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in larger animals and humans. Creative Biolabs' DNA vaccine platform can optimize DNA vaccines in terms of promoters, antigens, scaffolds, and adjuvants.

  • Promotor: hybrid (viral/eukaryotic)/APC specific activity
  • Antigen: codon optimization, fusion with invariant chain, combination of different antigens
  • Backbone: immunostimulatory sequences, NLS, A/T-rich sequence, minicircle
  • Adjuvant: signaling adaptor/transcription factor, APC/T cell stimulatory cytokine or chemokine

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